At the same time, modelling systems are being built and usage of non-traditional fuels is being started. About three decades ago oil-shale mines of the former USSR including Estonia did not use the progressive mining methods with continuous miner, which are most suitable for the case of high-strength limestone layers in oil- shale bed.

Risk Assessment Methods in Estonian Oil Shale Mining Industry

1.3 Problems of oil shale mining Estonian oil shale of various qualities are used for generation of electric power and in shale oil processing, however the different mining and excavation methods and accompanying development processes has different influence on environment. Oil shale mining can disturb the landscape and hydrological regime

Oil Shale: Ready to Unlock the Rock | Construction ...

Large deposits of oil shale in the United States hold enormous economic potential, as well as strategic value, for this country. ... Oil Shale: Ready to Unlock the Rock. Wed February 20, 2008 ...

Shale oil extraction - Wikipedia

The US program was restarted in 2003, followed by a commercial leasing program in 2005 permitting the extraction of oil shale and oil sands on federal lands in accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005. As of 2010, shale oil extraction is in operation in Estonia, Brazil, and China.

What is Oil Shale? | Union of Concerned Scientists

Oil shale is a mixture of sand, silt, salt, and an insoluble organic substance called kerogen. Rock-like at room temperature, oil shale produces vapors and gases when heated, which in turn are condensed and turned into oil. Oil shale shouldn't be confused with "shale oil," also called "tight oil ...

Mining of Oil Shale - Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS COAL, OIL SHALE, NATURAL BITUMEN, HEAVY OIL AND PEAT – Vol. II - Mining of Oil Shale - Ingo Valgma and Jialin L. Qian ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) MINING OF OIL SHALE Ingo Valgma Department of Mining, Tallinn Technical University, Estonia

Estonian oil shale - kirj.ee

Estonian oil shale Compiled by Mihkel Koel in 1999 1. Resources. There are two types of oil shales in Baltic Basin: the Middle Ordovician kukersite mined in the Estonia and St.Petersburg fields (Russia), and lower Ordovician Dictyonema shale.

Oil shale mining in Estonia: Surface mining is the most ...

The endeavour to mine oil shale in Estonia has long been characterized by the notion of self-sufficiency in resources. The use of surface miners has now given priority also to the economic efficiency of the mining process. Oil shale mining in Estonia began as early as 1916.

Oil shale production and power generation in Estonia ...

Oil shale production and power generation in Estonia Economic and environmental dilemmas N.I. Barabaner and I.Z. Kaganovich Combustive oil shale is the main type of fuel used in Estonian power plants. The economic state of the oil shale mining industry has deteriorated during the last decade.

An Energy Overview of the Republic of Estonia - GENI

After the war, Estonian oil shale reserves were developed to provide liquid fuel for the Soviet navy stationed at Leningrad. Oil shale is presently by far the largest source of energy in Estonia; in 1997 oil shale provided 76% of Estonia's TPES. Since Estonia began using oil shale they have mined about 900 million metric tons.


USAGE OF ESTONIAN OIL SHALE E. VÄLI, I. VALGMA, E. REINSALU* Department of Mining, Tallinn University of Technology 5 Ehitajate Rd., 19086 Tallinn, Estonia Estonian oil shale has been used for 90 years mainly for electricity and oil generation with the ash …

A study on the EU oil shale industry – viewed in the light ...

for 'ordinary' oil and for shale oil in the event of a major expansion of shale oil production; foreseeable reductions in the costs of extraction and processing due to technological improvements; impacts on employment (the shale oil industry accounts for about 1% of national employment in Estonia). One

Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid fuels produced from ...

Oil shale emissions in Estonia arise both from combustion for electricity generation and conversion of oil shale to liquid fuels. This review will focus on CO 2 emissions from con-verting oil shale to liquid fuels, such as synthetic gasoline or diesel. Conversion of oil shale to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons can occur in place in the ge-

Development of Radio Frequency Heating Technology for ...

Shale Oil Extraction . Yi Pan, Can Chen, Shuangchun Yang, Guiyang Ma . ... Estonia and Bra- zil in the world [3,4]. As a potential important resource, many of the world's companies have been working on the ... The oil industry equipment is used to drill oil well in oil shale. RF antenna or transmitter is sent down to

Oil shale in Estonia - OilfieldWiki

Oil shale in Estonia is an important resource for the national economy.Estonia's oil shale deposits account for just 17% of total deposits in the European Union but the country generates 90% of its power from this source. The oil shale industry in Estonia employs 7,500 people—about one percent of the national work force—and accounts for four percent of its gross domestic product.


1) to guarantee Estonia's supply of oil shale energy and ensure energetic independence of Estonia; 2) to increase the efficiency of oil shale mining and use; 3) to decrease the environmental impact of oil shale mining and use. The investments stipulated in the Oil shale …

Oil shale in Estonia - Wikipedia

The tests proved that the oil shale was suitable for combustion as a solid fuel and for extraction of oil shale gas and shale oil. Based on these promising results, a plan for oil shale mining in Estonia was presented to the Emperor Nicholas II on 3 January 1917.

Shale Oil & Gas: A study on refining - wipo.int

exploration, production and extraction. Shale oil and gas is an expensive sector due to the low probability 2 Shale oil and gas [Link] 3 Shale oil: the next energy revolution [Link] Shale oil and gas is termed as the next "computer innovation" in the field of energy that has the potential to become an alternative of conventional energy sources.

A Cheaper Way to Draw Oil from Shale - MIT Technology Review

Apr 08, 2009· A Cheaper Way to Draw Oil from Shale. ... The kerogen liquefies and gradually pools around an extraction well, where the oil-like fluid can easily be pumped to the surface.


QUALITY CONTROL OF OIL SHALE PRODUCTION IN ESTONIAN MINES I. VALGMA*, E. REINSALU, S. SABANOV, V. KARU Department of Mining, Tallinn University of Technology 5 Ehitajate Rd., 19086 Tallinn, Estonia The basic parameters of oil shale quality are heating value and grain-size composition. Heating value can vary considerably within the location in a

Oil Shale Deposits | Maps, Geology & Resources

The gross heating value of oil shales on a dry-weight basis ranges from about 500 to 4,000 kilocalories per kilogram (kcal/kg) of rock. The high-grade kukersite oil shale of Estonia, which fuels several electric power plants, has a heating value of about 2,000 to 2,200 kcal/kg.

Utilization of Estonian oil shale semicoke | Request PDF

Utilization of Estonian oil shale semicoke ... is piled into large depositories next to oil extraction plants. In Estonia more than 100 Mt of oil shale retorting waste (called semi-coke) is ...

oil shale | National Geographic Society

Oil shale is a type of rock that can be burned for energy or fuel. Like traditional petroleum, natural gas, and coal, oil shale and kerogen are fossil fuels. Fossil fuels developed from the remains of algae, spores, plants, pollen, and a variety of other organisms that lived millions of years ago in ...

Oil shale mining in Estonia: Surface mining is the most ...

Oil shale mining in Estonia Selective mining improves quality in oil shale extraction. Oil shale is a type of rock consisting of both organic carbon and mineral constituents. Oil shale resources are estimated to amount to some 10 quintillion tonnes worldwide.

Backfilling technologies for Estonian oil shale mines

Backfilling technologies for Estonian oil shale mines ... The oil shale deposit in Estonia is located partly ... ers could be used for oil shale and phosphate rock extraction (Fig. 4, Valgma et al ...


Crude shale oil, shale gas and water are produced from in-situ retorts. The crude shale oil produced is a quality that requires less upgrading than oil from most ex-situ processes, but recoveries are somewhat less. Studies indicate that the shale gas produced is sufficient to supply a large portion of the heat needed for oil shale retorting.

Oil Shale Extraction | HowStuffWorks

And in many cases, the remaining oil is simply left for future drilling with more advanced equipment. Getting crude oil from rock represents perhaps the most difficult process of extraction. Oil shale must be mined using either underground- or surface-mining methods. After excavation, the oil shale must undergo retorting.

Oil Shale - Background - kkl-jnf.org

global production potential, in 2010 shale oil extraction on an industrial scale was underway only in Estonia, China, Australia and Brazil, all of which use opencast mining techniques. Both Professor Flexer and the representatives of IEI, including Dr. Bartov, stressed that at present there is not a single site in the world where shale oil is

January: Estonia is cleansing oil shale

Jan 02, 2014· The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications and the IEA organised a joint plenary session on energy technologies, with the IEA presenting some of the latest advances in energy technology and policy for better use of oil shale. Estonia is also expected to join a number of IEA-supported research networks related to the oil shale industry ...

Oil shale - Environmental issues | Britannica.com

Oil shale - Oil shale - Environmental issues: The production of oil from shales has a potentially serious impact on the environment. Four specific areas of concern dominate discussion regarding development of the resource: greenhouse gas output, water consumption and pollution, surface disturbance, and socioeconomic effects. Because oil and gas are produced by heating oil shale and because ...